Brain diseases include infections, stroke, seizures, tumours and neurological conditions.
Brain diseases in the category of infections include:
Meningitis: An inflammation of the lining around the brain or spinal cord, usually due to infection. Neck pain, headache and confusion are common symptoms.
Encephalitis: An inflammation of the brain tissue, usually due to infection. Meningitis and encephalitis often occur together, which is called meningoencephalitis.
Brain abscess: A pocket of infection in the brain, usually caused by bacteria. Antibiotics and surgical drainage of the area are often necessary.
Included in the seizure category of brain diseases is epilepsy. Head injuries and strokes may cause seizures, but often no cause is identified.
Trauma includes these conditions:
Concussion: A brain injury that causes a temporary disturbance in brain function, sometimes with unconsciousness and confusion. Traumatic head injuries cause concussions.
Traumatic brain injury: Permanent brain damage from a traumatic head injury. Obvious mental impairment or more subtle personality and mood changes can occur.
Intracerebral haemorrhage: Any bleeding inside the brain, which may occur after a traumatic injury or due to high blood pressure.
Tumours, masses and increased pressure
This category of brain disease includes:
Brain tumour: Any abnormal tissue growth inside the brain. Whether malignant (cancerous) or benign, brain tumours usually cause problems by the pressure they exert on the normal brain.
Glioblastoma: An aggressive, cancerous brain tumour. Brain glioblastomas progress rapidly and are usually difficult to cure.
Hydrocephalus: An abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal (brain) fluid inside the skull. Usually this is because the fluid is not circulating properly.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus: A form of hydrocephalus that often causes problems with walking, along with dementia and urinary incontinence. Pressures inside the brain remain normal, despite the increased fluid.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: Increased pressure inside the skull with no apparent cause. Vision disturbances, headaches, dizziness and nausea are common symptoms.