If you have a stone in one of your kidneys, a small operation where doctors make a cut in your back will probably be able to remove it. But there hasn't been much good-quality research.
This operation is called percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). It is often used when a stone is quite large or in a place that can't easily be reached with shock wave therapy. 
A review of the research found that PCNL worked more quickly than shock wave therapy to remove stones from the kidneys.  One good-quality study (a randomised controlled trial) found that: 
Altogether, 10 in 100 people who started out having shock wave therapy needed another procedure to get rid of their kidney stones.  Out of those who had PCNL, none needed another procedure.
Another study compared people who had PCNL with people who had open surgery.  Open surgery is where a surgeon makes a cut in your skin and removes the stone directly from your kidneys. The two operations worked about as well as each other. But PCNL had fewer side effects.
People also recovered faster after PCNL. They were able to go home three and a half days sooner, and go back to work one and a half weeks sooner.
The side effects from PCNL can include:  
If you have PCNL, you will be given either:
A doctor will make a small cut in your back and pass a needle and a very thin tube into your kidney. The doctor will then put an instrument through the tube to remove the stone. 
You will probably have to stay in hospital for a few days after this operation. You should be able to go back to light activities after one to two weeks.
You may have a type of medicine called a general anaesthetic when you have surgery. It is given to make you unconscious so you don't feel pain when you have surgery.
A local anaesthetic is a painkiller that's used to numb one part of your body. You usually get local anaesthetics as injections.
randomised controlled trials
Randomised controlled trials are medical studies designed to test whether a treatment works. Patients are split into groups. One group is given the treatment being tested (for example, an antidepressant drug) while another group (called the comparison or control group) is given an alternative treatment. This could be a different type of drug or a dummy treatment (a placebo). Researchers then compare the effects of the different treatments.
For more terms related to Kidney stones
For references related to Kidney stones click here