Parkinson's disease: Causes, diagnosis and stages
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological condition which affects around one person in every 500 in the UK, according to the charity Parkinson's UK. The main symptoms are tremor (shaking), rigidity and slower movement.
Most people who get Parkinson's are in their 50s, but it can affect younger people.
People with Parkinson's don't have enough of a brain chemical called dopamine because some nerve brain cells have died.
Medication can treat the symptoms of Parkinson's, but there's no cure. The condition is not directly life-threatening, although it can be extremely debilitating.
What causes Parkinson’s disease?
Parkinson's disease is caused by the progressive impairment or deterioration of neurons (nerve cells) in an area of the brain known as the substantia nigra. When functioning normally, these neurons produce a vital brain chemical known as dopamine. Dopamine serves as a chemical messenger allowing communication between the substantia nigra and another area of the brain called the corpus striatum. This communication coordinates smooth and balanced muscle movement. A lack of dopamine results in abnormal nerve functioning, causing a loss in ability to control body movements.
Why does Parkinson's occur?
Why Parkinson's disease occurs and how the neurons become impaired is not known. However, there is increasing evidence that Parkinson's disease may be inherited (passed on genetically through family members).
There is considerable controversy surrounding the possibility of a genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. In a small number of families, specific genetic abnormalities leading to the illness have been identified. However, the vast majority of people with Parkinson's disease do not have one of these identified genetic abnormalities. It is probable that in people who develop Parkinson's disease early in life (young-onset Parkinson's disease) there is a genetic component. Because we don't understand very much at this point about how Parkinson's disease is inherited, the implications for children of people with Parkinson's disease are unclear. However, researchers have identified certain genes associated with a range of Parkinson-type disorders and work continues on this.
There is also some evidence that certain toxins in the environment may cause Parkinson's disease. Scientists have suggested that external or internal toxins may selectively destroy the dopaminergic neurons, causing Parkinson's disease. Toxins that may be linked to Parkinson's include manganese, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide and some other pesticides.
Also, it is believed that oxidative stress can cause Parkinson's disease. Oxidation is a process in which free radicals (unstable molecules lacking one electron), in an attempt to replace the missing electron, react with other molecules (such as iron). Free radicals are normally formed in the brain and body, but usually the brain and body have mechanisms to get rid of them. In people with Parkinson's disease, the mechanisms may not be effective or they may produce too many free radicals. It is also possible that environmental toxins may contribute to abnormal free radical formation and lead to Parkinson's disease. Oxidation is thought to cause damage to tissues, including neurons. In most cases, antioxidants protect cells from free radical damage.