BMJ Group Medical Reference
The full name for these medicines is corticosteroids. They're not the same as the anabolic steroids used by some athletes. They calm down swelling and inflammation in the body.
The steroids studied for sore throats include dexamethasone, betamethasone, and prednisolone.  These can be given as tablets, liquids, and injections.
Steroids are still an experimental treatment for sore throats. Doctors don't usually recommend them.
Much of the research on steroids has looked at giving them to people with severe sore throats who are already taking antibiotics. One review of studies found that steroids can reduce the pain of a sore throat in adults and also help the pain go away faster. However, it wasn't clear whether the treatment helped children. 
Steroids can cause side effects. These can be serious, especially if you take them for a long time. But in the studies on steroids for a sore throat, people took these drugs for only a short time. This may cut the risk of side effects.
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