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Childhood immunisation

Most of us know that our children need to be vaccinated, but we don’t always know which vaccines our children need at specific ages.

The following routine immunisation schedule applies to children in the UK:

  • At two months old: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and pneumococcal infection (PCV) vaccine (DTaP/IPV/Hib (5-in-1 vaccine) plus PCV).
  • At three months: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), plus meningitis C (DTaP/IPV/Hib plus men C).
  • At four months: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), plus meningitis C, and pneumococcal infection (DTaP/IPV/Hib plus PCV plus men C).
  • Between 12-13 months: the final booster dose for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningitis C, measles, mumps and rubella (the MMR vaccine) and pneumococcal infection (Hib/men C booster, PCV & MMR).
  • At three years and four months or soon after: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio, and a second dose of MMR for measles, mumps and rubella (DTaP/IPV & MMR pre-school booster).
  • Girls aged 12-13 years: cervical cancer (HPV) vaccine to protect against human papilloma virus types 16 and 18 and genital warts.
  • At 13-18 years: diphtheria, tetanus and polio (Td/IPV). Men C for teenagers especially when going to college/university.

Non-routine childhood immunisations are: 

  • Tuberculosis: given after birth (three days) to babies more likely than the general population to come into contact with tuberculosis.
  • Hepatitis B: given after birth (three days) to babies whose mothers are hepatitis B positive.
  • Varicella ( chicken pox) vaccination for at-risk groups, including those with weakened immune systems through illness, such as HIV, or through treatment, such as chemotherapy cancer treatment.

 

The importance of vaccination for children

Vaccination is the best way we have to prevent the spread of infectious disease. Many diseases that were once prevalent in this country are now at their lowest levels in decades thanks to vaccines.

Next to sanitation and clean drinking water, vaccines have been called the greatest public health intervention in history. Vaccinations have saved the lives of millions over the years and have prevented hundreds of millions of cases of disease.

Why do we need a childhood immunisation programme?

Because of a child's developing immune system, doctors have found that vaccines work best when they are given at certain ages. For example, measles vaccine is not usually given to children until they are at least a year old. If it is given earlier it might not work as well.

Also, some vaccines require multiple (booster) doses before immunisation is complete. For these to be effective, it is important that the doses are not given too close to one another. This is why doctors have developed programmes for vaccinating your children. However, the schedules are fairly flexible, and if a child misses a recommended dose at a given age he or she can catch up later.

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