Measles is a viral illness caused by the rubeola virus that is spread through coughs and sneezes.
Symptoms of measles
The symptoms of measles include:
- Spotty red/brown rash
- Cough/cold-like symptoms
- Greyish white spots in the mouth and throat
The measles rash develops two to four days after the onset of illness, starting with the face and head and spreading down the body.
If the measles virus infects the lungs, it can cause pneumonia. Some older children infected with the virus suffer from encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), which can cause seizures and permanent brain damage.
This picture shows a child with measles who clearly feels miserable.
A doctor will usually make a measles diagnosis based on the symptoms, including the distinctive rash.
A blood or saliva test may be taken to confirm the diagnosis.
There's no specific treatment recommended for measles, other than making the person with measles feel more comfortable:
- Age-appropriate paracetamol or ibuprofen can help relieve fever, aches and pains
- Drinking plenty of water to avoid dehydration
- Use damp cotton wool to clean the eyes
- Closing curtains to help reduce sensitivity to light
Parents worry about childhood rashes, but most are not measles. Seek medical advice if you notice symptoms of measles, but phone ahead to say you suspect measles. Doctors have to register all cases of measles so that any infection clusters can be tracked and treated.
Measles usually gets better on its own, but if additional symptoms develop, seek urgent medical advice.
In severe cases of measles, especially if there are complications, hospital treatment may be needed.
Children who catch measles should not go back to school until at least five days after the appearance of the rash.
Protection against measles as well as mumps and rubella is given in the MMR vaccine at 13 months and then a booster between the ages of three and five. If you are an adult who has not had the vaccination or the diseases, it may be important for you to receive the MMR vaccination too.
Women planning to become pregnant who have not been vaccinated should talk to their GP as the jab cannot be given during pregnancy.
Measles during pregnancy can harm the unborn baby.
The number of children given the MMR vaccine dipped after a now-discredited study in the Lancet in 1998 linked the jab with autism and bowel disease. The research paper was retracted by the medical journal and the doctor behind the research was struck off. However, confidence in the MMR vaccine is taking time to return and some groups of children are growing up never having had measles protection.
The Health Protection Agency says people who are not fully vaccinated are not just at risk themselves, but they pose an infection risk to others, such as babies and toddlers who are too young to be vaccinated.
In March 2013, a major outbreak of measles centred on Swansea prompted health authorities to make an urgent appeal to parents to get their children vaccinated with the MMR jab as a matter of priority.
Public Health Wales said cases of measles were spreading at an 'alarming rate'.