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Fertility health centre

IVF (in vitro fertilisation)


WebMD Medical Reference
Medically Reviewed by Dr Rob Hicks

IVF, or in vitro fertilisation, is a type of fertility treatment where the egg is fertilised with sperm outside the womb in a laboratory.

The fertilised egg becomes an embryo which is returned to the womb to grow like a normal pregnancy.

IVF babies used to be called test tube babies. The technique was pioneered in the UK with Louise Brown, born in Oldham in 1978, becoming the first baby to be conceived outside her mother's womb.

IVF may be available on the NHS in some areas and in certain circumstances.

What causes of infertility can IVF treat?

IVF may be an option if you or your partner has been diagnosed with:

  • Endometriosis
  • Low sperm count
  • Problems with the uterus or fallopian tubes
  • Problems with ovulation
  • Antibody problems that harm sperm or eggs
  • The inability of sperm to penetrate or survive in the cervical mucus
  • An unexplained fertility problem

IVF is never the first step in the treatment of infertility. It is reserved for cases in which other methods such as fertility drugs, surgery, and artificial insemination haven't worked.

If you think that IVF might make sense for you, here are some questions to ask your NHS specialist, or the staff at a private fertility clinic:

  • What is your pregnancy ratio per embryo transfer?
  • What is your pregnancy rate for couples in our age group and with our fertility problem?
  • What is the live birth rate for all couples who undergo this procedure each year at your facility?
  • How many of those deliveries are twins or other multiple births?
  • If it is a private clinic, how much will the procedure cost, including the cost of the hormone treatments?
  • How much does it cost to store embryos and how long can we store them?
  • Do you participate in an egg donation programme?

IVF: What you can expect

The first step in IVF involves injecting hormones so you produce multiple eggs each month instead of only one. You will then be tested to determine whether you're ready for egg retrieval.

Prior to the retrieval procedure, you will be given injections of a medication that ripens the developing eggs and starts the process of ovulation. Timing is important; the eggs must be retrieved just before they emerge from the follicles in the ovaries. If the eggs are taken out too early or too late, they won't develop normally. Your doctor will do blood tests or an ultrasound to be sure the eggs are at the right stage of development before retrieving them. The IVF facility will provide you with special instructions to follow the night before and the day of the procedure. Most women are given pain medication and the choice of being mildly sedated or having full anaesthesia.

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