It's the formaldehyde and its equivalents in some of these treatments that raises concerns. EU scientists say formaldehyde is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract. Cancer Research UK says it is known to cause cancer. Formaldehyde should be restricted to 0.2% of any cosmetic product. However, higher concentrations have been found, raising concerns for hair dressers breathing it in.
If you have a keratin treatment, ask what's in it. However, the pack may not tell the whole story. Methylene glycol is formed by dissolving formaldehyde in water, so formaldehyde itself may well not be on the packet.
Alternatively, consider investing in a good hair straightener.