Side effects of NSAIDs
NHS ChoicesMedical Reference
Many people take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) without having any side effects. They can be a very effective form of treatment and are widely used to treat a number of conditions.
However, it is important to remember that any medicine can carry a risk of side effects. In a small number of cases, the side effects of NSAIDs can be very serious. So if you are taking NSAIDs for a prolonged period of time, or in high doses, your reaction to the medication will be closely monitored.
Some of the side effects that can be caused by NSAIDs are described below.
Common side effects
NSAIDs most commonly affect the gastrointestinal tract (the stomach and intestines). Common side effects associated with the long-term use of NSAIDs include:
- stomach ulcer (a sore in the lining of the stomach)
Stomach ulcers can sometimes cause more serious complications, such as:
- gastrointestinal bleeding - internal bleeding inside the digestive system
- anaemia - a condition where the blood is unable to carry enough oxygen around your body
- gastrointestinal perforation - where a hole occurs in the wall of your stomach or intestines
Less common side effects
Less commonly, NSAIDs can affect your heart and the rest of the circulatory system. Side effects can include:
- heart failure
- heart attack
- high blood pressure ( hypertension)
Although these side effects are potentially very serious, it is important to note that they are uncommon and are most likely to affect someone who has an existing cardiovascular condition.
Research has found that taking NSAIDs on a daily basis causes persistent headaches in around 1 in 10 people.
Some types of NSAID can make people feel drowsy or dizzy. If you have these side effects while taking a NSAID, avoid driving or operating machinery.
Rare side effects
In rare cases, NSAIDs may affect your liver or kidneys. However, this only happens in a small number of cases, and it is most likely to affect those with existing liver or kidney conditions
- An allergen is a substance that reacts with the body's immune system and causes an allergic reaction.
- Blood supplies oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide. It is pumped around the body by the heart.
- Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdomen, which remove waste and extra fluid from the blood and pass them out of the body as urine.
- The sac-like organ of the digestive system. It helps digest food by churning it and mixing it with acids to break it down into smaller pieces.
- Stool (also known as faeces) is the solid waste matter that is passed from the body as a bowel movement.
- An ulcer is a sore break in the skin, or on the inside lining of the body.
- Vomiting is when you bring up the contents of your stomach through your mouth.