Drug and alcohol related sleep problems
Sleep problems have been associated with drug use, drug abuse, and withdrawal from drugs. Sleep disturbances also have been linked to the use of alcohol and chronic alcoholism.
Drugs and sleep
Many prescription and non-prescription medications can cause sleep problems. The severity of sleep problems caused by a drug will vary from person to person.
Prescription medicines that may cause sleep problems include:
- High blood pressure medications
- Hormones such as oral contraceptives
- Steroids including prednisolone
- Inhaled respiratory medications
- Diet tablets
- Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications
- Some antidepressants
The following non-prescription drugs can cause sleep problems:
- Medications with caffeine, including cough and cold medications
- Illegal drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, and methamphetamines
- Nicotine, which can disrupt sleep and reduce total sleep time. Smokers report more daytime sleepiness and minor accidents than do non-smokers, especially in younger age groups
Alcohol and sleep
Alcohol often is thought of as a sedative or calming drug. While alcohol may induce sleep, the quality of sleep is often fragmented during the second half of the sleep period. Alcohol increases the number of times you awaken in the later half of the night when the alcohol's relaxing effect wears off. It prevents you from getting the deep sleep and REM sleep you need because alcohol keeps you in the lighter stages of sleep.
With continued consumption just before bedtime, alcohol's sleep-inducing effect may decrease as its disruptive effects continue or increase. The sleep disruption resulting from alcohol use may lead to daytime fatigue and sleepiness. Elderly people are at particular risk of alcohol-related sleep disorders because they achieve higher levels of alcohol in the blood and brain than do younger adults after consuming an equivalent dose. Bedtime alcohol consumption among older adults may lead to unsteadiness if walking is attempted during the night, with increased risk of falls and injuries.