Dengue is a common viral infection spread by mosquitoes. It is widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions.
Symptoms of dengue include:
- a high temperature (fever) that can reach as high as 41ºC (105.8ºF)
- pain behind the eyes
- bone, muscle and joint pain
You should see your GP if you develop a fever or flu-like symptoms within two weeks of returning from an area where the dengue virus is common. Alternatively, you can call NHS 111 for advice.
Read more about the symptoms of dengue.
What causes dengue?
Dengue is spread by a type of infected mosquito called the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
An infected human is bitten by a mosquito, the infected mosquito then bites another human, and the cycle continues.
The condition is widespread in areas of the world with a high mosquito population, typically areas that have a combination of:
- a warm and humid climate
- overcrowding and major urban centres
The mosquitoes that spread dengue are rare in England and cases that develop in the UK occur in travellers who picked up the infection overseas.
Dengue cannot be spread from person-to-person.
Read more about the causes of dengue
If you have travelled to a country with dengue and develop symptoms after you return to the UK, go straight to your nearest healthcare professional (either a GP or hospital).
If you go to a local doctor familiar with dengue, they will probably be able to diagnose the condition just by looking at you and asking about your symptoms. Remember to tell them you have been travelling.
Your medical and travel history will be taken and you will be asked about your exposure to mosquitoes.
You will also be given a blood test to see if the dengue virus is present in your bloodstream.
Dengue usually clears up by itself within around 1-2 weeks.
There are no specific medications to treat the disease, but symptoms can be managed by taking paracetamol, drinking plenty of fluids and resting.
Read more about the treatment of dengue.
A very small number of people with dengue go on to develop a more serious form of the disease known as 'severe dengue'. Severe dengue is a potentially fatal complication of dengue that can lead to shock (a sudden drop in blood pressure), bleeding and organ damage.
People who get this complication will need to be admitted to hospital as a precaution.
Read more about the complications of dengue.
There is currently no vaccine for dengue fever so the best way to prevent catching the infection is to take common sense precautions when travelling in high-risk areas, such as:
- wear protective clothing
- using a mosquito repellent throughout the day and night
Read more about reducing your risk of getting dengue.
Who is affected
It is estimated that 100 million cases of dengue occur each year worldwide.
There can be sudden outbreaks of cases (epidemics) where thousands of people can become infected in a short space of time.
In 2012 there were 343 reported cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Most of these cases were in people returning from South East Asia, the Far East, the Indian Subcontinent and the Caribbean.
Anyone can get dengue.