Types of urinary incontinence
According to the NHS, urinary incontinence affects about three million people in the UK - more of them women than men. The NHS says it could affect one in five women aged over 40. It happens when you lose urine by accident. There are several different types of urinary incontinence.
Stress incontinence may happen when there is an increase in abdominal pressure, such as when you exercise, laugh, sneeze or cough. Urine leaks due to weakened pelvic floor muscles and tissues.
Causes of stress incontinence include:
- Multiple pregnancies and childbirths, which cause stretching and damage
- Being overweight
- Genetic weaknesses
- Other chronic conditions
Urge incontinence is often called "overactive bladder": You have an urgent need to go to the bathroom, and may not get there in time, leaking urine.
Causes of overactive bladder include:
- Damage to the bladder's nerves
- Damage to the nervous system
- Damage to muscles
Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke can harm muscles or nerves, resulting in urge incontinence.
Some women have both of these types of urinary incontinence - "stress" and "urge". Doctors call this mixed urinary incontinence.
You may have overflow incontinence if you are not able to completely empty your bladder when you urinate. As a result, you have a constant or frequent dribble of urine. This is the type of urinary incontinence that most often strikes men.
Causes of overflow incontinence include:
- Weak bladder muscles
- Blockage of the urethra, such as by prostate enlargement
- Medical conditions such as tumours
With functional incontinence, physical problems such as arthritis or cognitive problems such as dementia prevent you from getting to the bathroom in time.
Treatment for different types of urinary incontinence
To improve or eliminate urinary incontinence, you can make lifestyle changes and get treatment depending on which type you have.
For stress incontinence, treatment options include:
Pelvic floor exercises. If you've had a baby, chances are you've been told to do Kegel exercises. These help to strengthen the pelvic floor after childbirth. It is wise to keep doing the Kegels to keep your pelvic muscles and tissues strong, which can help prevent stress incontinence. Best of all, Kegels can be done anytime, anywhere. To do Kegels, pretend you are trying to stop the flow of urine or stop passing wind. Kegel exercises should be done every day, five times a day. Each time you contract the muscles of the pelvic floor, hold for a slow count of five and then relax. Repeat this 10 times for one set of Kegels.
Medication or surgery. Medication for stress incontinence can help tighten muscles at the bladder neck, preventing leakage. Or, in more extreme cases, surgery can help. One procedure pulls the bladder back up to a more normal position, relieving the pressure and leakage. Another surgical procedure involves securing the bladder with a "sling," a piece of tissue or other material that holds the bladder up to prevent leakage