Manuka honey is produced in New Zealand by bees that pollinate the native manuka bush. Advocates say it has been in traditional use for generations to treat wound infections. More recently it has been tested as a weapon against hospital infections like MRSA.
Because of the way health products are licenced in Europe and the UK, unless there's validated scientific evidence for any health benefits, manufacturers are not allowed to make any health or medicinal claims about their product.
We take a look at what the science says about manuka honey.
Healing power of honey
Honey has been used since ancient times to treat multiple conditions. It wasn't until the late 19th century that researchers discovered that honey has natural antibacterial qualities.
Honey protects against damage caused by bacteria. Some honey also stimulates production of special cells that can repair tissue damaged by infection. In addition, honey has an anti-inflammatory action that can quickly reduce pain and inflammation once it is applied.
Not all honey is the same. The antibacterial quality of honey depends on the type of honey as well as when and how it's harvested. Some kinds of honey may be 100 times more potent than others.
Components of manuka honey
Hydrogen peroxide is a component of honey. It gives most honey its antibiotic quality, but some types of honey, including manuka honey, also have other components with antibacterial qualities.
The major antibacterial component in manuka honey is methylglyoxal (MG). MG is a compound found in most types of honey, but usually only in small quantities.
In manuka honey, MG comes from the conversion of another compound - dihydroxyacetone - that is found in high concentration in the nectar of manuka flowers.
MG gives manuka honey its antibacterial power. The higher the concentration of MG, the stronger the antibacterial effect.
How manuka honey is used
The main traditional medical use for manuka honey is on top of a wound. It is generally used for treating minor wounds and burns.
The honey used to treat wounds is a medical-grade honey. It is specially sterilised and prepared as a dressing, not just a jar from a shelf in a kitchen. Wounds and infections should also be seen and treated by a health care professional.
Evidence is limited on whether or not manuka honey has any effect on conditions like high cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, inflammation, eye, ear, and sinus infections and gastrointestinal problems.
What the science says about manuka honey
Several studies suggest manuka honey is effective when used on top of wounds and leg ulcers. Studies also show it's effective in fighting infection and promoting healing.
Not all studies show that it helps to heal ulcers, and there is concern that manuka honey may actually delay healing in people who have ulcers related to diabetes.