Low potassium (hypokalaemia)
Potassium is important for a person's muscles to work effectively, including the heart. Potassium also has a role in regulating blood pressure.
Low potassium levels (hypokalaemia) can cause weakness as cellular processes are affected.
Potassium is a mineral ( electrolyte) in the body. Almost 98% of potassium is found inside the cells. Small changes in the level of potassium that is present outside the cells can have severe effects on the heart, nerves, and muscles.
The kidney is the main organ that controls the balance of potassium by removing excess potassium into the urine.
The normal potassium level is 3.5-5.0 mmol/L (millimoles per litre).
Low potassium is defined as a potassium level below 3.5 mmol/L.
People with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia, patients with AIDS, alcoholics, and those who have had bariatric surgery, have a higher incidence of hypokalaemia.
Low potassium causes
Dehydration, diarrhoea, excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) and laxative abuse are common causes of low potassium levels.
It may also be caused by a lack of potassium in the diet. However, this is uncommon.
Other causes include drugs that affect the amount of potassium in the body, such as diuretics (“water pills”).
Low potassium symptoms
Symptoms of low potassium are usually mild. At times the effects of low potassium can be vague. There may be more than one symptom involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kidneys, muscles, heart, and nerves.
When to seek medical attention
If you are having symptoms of low potassium, seek medical advice. If you have muscle cramps, weakness, palpitations, or feel faint and you are taking a diuretic drug, seek urgent medical advice.
Without symptoms, you will not know you have low potassium levels until you have a routine blood test.
Low potassium diagnosis
Sometimes the cause of low potassium is not clear. Your doctor may perform certain tests to rule out other conditions such as renal tubular acidosis, Cushing's syndrome, and hypocalcaemia.
Blood tests check potassium level, kidney function, glucose, magnesium, calcium and phosphorous if an electrolyte imbalance is suspected. Because low potassium is known to affect heart rhythms (arrhythmias), a doctor may recommend a digoxin level if you are taking a digitalis drug.
ECG (heart tracing) is done to detect electrical changes in the heart and certain types of irregular heart rhythms that may be caused by low potassium.