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A long-lasting but painful erection is called a priapism.

Priapism can last for several hours and is not due to sexual stimulation.

Priapism develops when blood in the penis becomes trapped and is unable to drain away.

Priapism is a medical emergency as if it is not treated immediately, it can lead to permanent erectile dysfunction.

It can occur in all age groups, including newborns.

Types of priapism

There are two categories of priapism: low-flow and high-flow.

  • Low-flow: This type of priapism is the result of blood being trapped in the erection chambers. It often occurs without a known cause in men who are otherwise healthy, but also affects men with sickle-cell disease, leukaemia ( cancer of the blood) or malaria.
  • High-flow: High-flow priapism is rarer than low-flow and usually less painful. It is the result of a ruptured artery from an injury to the penis or the perineum (area between the scrotum and anus), which prevents blood in the penis from circulating normally.


What causes priapism?

  • Sickle cell anaemia: Around 1 in 4 boys and 9 out of 10 men with sickle cell anaemia will have at least one episode of priapism.
  • Medication: A common cause of priapism is the use and/or misuse of medications including drugs for depression and mental illness. For people who have erectile dysfunction, oral or injection therapy medications to treat the condition may also cause priapism.

Other causes of priapism include:

  • Trauma to the spinal cord or genital area
  • Black widow spider bites
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Illicit drug use, such as marijuana and cocaine.

In rare cases, priapism may be related to cancers that can affect the penis and prevent the outflow of blood.

How is priapism diagnosed?

If you experience priapism, it is important that you seek medical care immediately. Tell your doctor:

  • The length of time you have had the erection.
  • How long your erections usually last.
  • Any medication or drugs, legal or illegal, which you have used. Be honest with your doctor, illegal drug use is particularly relevant since both marijuana and cocaine have been linked to priapism.
  • Whether or not priapism followed trauma to that area of the body.

Your doctor will review your medical history and perform a thorough physical examination to determine the cause of priapism. This will include checking the rectum and the abdomen for evidence of unusual growths or abnormalities that may indicate the presence of cancer.

How is priapism treated?

The goal of all treatment is to make the erection go away and preserve future erectile function. Treatment options include:

  • Ice packs: Ice applied to the penis and perineum may reduce swelling.
  • Surgical ligation: Used in cases where an artery has been ruptured, the doctor will ligate (tie off) the artery that is causing the priapism in order to restore normal blood flow.
  • Intracavernous injection: Used for low-flow priapism. During this treatment drugs known as alpha-agonists are injected into the penis. This causes the blood vessels to narrow, reducing blood flow to the penis and easing swelling to the area.
  • Surgical shunt: Also used for low-flow priapism. A shunt is a passageway that is surgically inserted into the penis to divert the blood flow and allow circulation to return to normal.
  • Aspiration: After numbing the penis, doctors will insert a needle and drain blood from the penis to reduce pressure and swelling.

If you suspect that you are experiencing priapism, you should not attempt to treat it yourself. Instead, seek emergency care as soon as possible.

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